Dating brass candlestick

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The aquamanile, a container for water to wash with, appears to have been introduced to Europe in the 11th century.Artisans often gave the pieces fantastic zoomorphic forms; surviving examples are mostly in brass.In illuminated manuscripts, for which the most lavishly decorated manuscripts of the period were mostly bibles or psalters, more originality is seen, as new scenes needed to be depicted.The same applied to the capitals of columns, never more exciting than in this period, when they were often carved with complete scenes with several figures.Precious objects in these media had a very high status in the period, probably much more so than paintings — the names of more makers of these objects are known than those of contemporary than painters, illuminators or architect-masons.

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In Southern France, Spain and Italy there was an architectural continuity with the Late Antique, but the Romanesque style was the first style to spread across the whole of Catholic Europe, from Sicily to Scandinavia.Stained glass became widely used, although survivals are sadly few.In an invention of the period, the tympanums of important church portals were carved with monumental schemes, often again Christ in Majesty or the Last Judgement, but treated with more freedom than painted versions, as there were no equivalent Byzantine models.Monasteries continued to be extremely important, especially those of the expansionist new orders of the period, the Cistercian, Cluniac, and Carthusian, which spread across Europe.But city churches, those on pilgrimage routes, and many churches in small towns and villages were elaborately decorated to a very high standard - these are often the structures to have survived, when cathedrals and city churches have been rebuilt. The lay artist was becoming a valued figure – Nicholas of Verdun seems to have been known across the continent.

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